• The Russian Holocaust

    On 22 June 1941, Adolf Hitler abruptly broke the non?aggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet territories occupied by early 1942, including all of Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Moldova and most Russian territory west of the line Leningrad-Moscow-Rostov, contained about four million Jews, including hundreds of thousands who had fled Poland in 1939. Despite the chaos of the Soviet retreat, some effort was made to evacuate Jews, who were either employed in the military industries or were family members of servicemen. Of 4 million about a million succeeded in escaping further east. The remaining three million were left at the mercy of the Nazis. Despite the subservience of the Oberkommando des Heeres to Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler did not trust the Army to approve of, let alone carry out, the large-scale killings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territories. This task was assigned to SS formations called Einsatzgruppen (“task groups”), under the overall command of Reinhard Heydrich. These had been used on a limited scale in Poland in 1939, but were now organized on a much larger scale. According to Otto Ohlendorf at his trial, “the Einsatzgruppen had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the Jews, gypsies, Communist functionaries, active Communists, and all persons who would endanger the security.” In practice, their victims were nearly all defenseless Jewish civilians (not a single Einsatzgruppe member was killed in action during these operations). Raul Hilberg writes that the Einsatzgruppe member were ordinary citizens; the great majority were university-educated professionals. By the end of 1941, however, the Einsatzgruppen had killed only 15 percent of the Jews in the occupied Soviet territories, and it was apparent that these methods could not be used to kill all the Jews of Europe. Even before the invasion of the Soviet Union, experiments with killing Jews in the back of vans using gas from the van’s exhaust had been carried out, and when this proved too slow, more lethal gasses were tried. For large-scale killing by gas, however, fixed sites would be needed, and it was decided—probably by Heydrich and Eichmann—that the Jews should be brought to camps specifically built for the purpose.

    Although the Soviet Union was victorious in World War II, the war resulted in around 26–27 million Soviet deaths. In October 1943, 600 Jewish and Russian prisoners attempted an escape at the Sobibór extermination camp. About 60 survived and joined the Belarusian partisans. In Eastern Europe, many Jews joined the ranks of the Soviet partisans: throughout the war, they faced antisemitism and discrimination from the Soviets and some Jewish partisans were killed, but over time, many of the Jewish partisan groups were absorbed into the command structure of the much larger Soviet partisan movement. Soviet partisans were not in a position to ensure protection to the Jews in the Holocaust. The fit Jews were usually welcomed by the partisans (sometimes only if they brought their own weapons); however women, children, and the elderly were mostly unwelcome. Eventually, however, separate Jewish groups, both guerrilla units and mixed family groups of refugees (like the Bielski partisans), were subordinated to the communist partisan leadership and considered as Soviet assets. Even as some assisted the Germans, a significant number of individuals in the territories under German control also helped Jews escape death (see Righteous Among the Nations). During World War II, Léon Poliakov established the Center of Contemporary Jewish Documentation (1943) and after the war, he assisted Edgar Faure at the Nuremberg Trial. By 1944, the Germans had been pushed out of the Soviet Union onto the banks of the Vistula River, just east of Prussia. With Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov attacking from Prussia, and Marshal Konev slicing Germany in half from the south the fate of Nazi Germany was sealed. It is estimated that up to 1.4 million Jews fought in Allied armies; 40% of them in the Red Army. Following the war, the Soviet Union suppressed or downplayed the impact of the Nazi crimes on its Jewish citizens. An anti-semitic campaign against “rootless cosmopolitans” (i.e. “Zionists”) followed. On 12 August 1952, in the event known as the Night of the Murdered Poets, thirteen most prominent Yiddish writers, poets, actors and other intellectuals were executed on the orders of Joseph Stalin, among them Peretz Markish, Leib Kvitko, David Hofstein, Itzik Feffer and David Bergelson. In 2012, Yad Vashem began releasing more than a million new testimonial pages about Jews in the Soviet Union that are expected to help researchers measure the scope of persecution and extermination of Jews in the former Soviet Union.

    Yad Vashem is Israel’s official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. It is dedicated to preserving the memory of the dead; honouring Jews who fought against their Nazi oppressors and Gentiles who selflessly aided Jews in need; and researching the phenomenon of the Holocaust in particular and genocide in general, with the aim of avoiding such events in the future. After the Western Wall, Yad Vashem is the second-most-visited Israeli tourist site. Its curators do not charge any fee for admission, and welcome approximately one million visitors a year. Yad Vashem seeks to preserve the memory and names of the six million Jews murdered during the Holocaust, and the numerous Jewish communities destroyed during that time. It holds ceremonies of remembrance and commemoration; supports Holocaust research projects; develops and coordinates symposia, workshops, and international conferences; and publishes research, memoirs, documents, albums, and diaries related to the Holocaust. The Hall of Names is a memorial to the six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust. The main hall is composed of two cones: one ten meters high, with a reciprocal well-like cone excavated into the underground rock, its base filled with water. On the upper cone is a display featuring 600 photographs of Holocaust victims and fragments of Pages of Testimony. These are reflected in the water at the bottom of the lower cone, commemorating those victims whose names remain unknown. Surrounding the platform is the circular repository, housing the approximately 2.2 million Pages of Testimony collected to date, with empty spaces for those yet to be submitted.


  • The Humble Bunk Bed

    The most common type is the standard bunk bed which has two same size mattresses stacked one directly over the other. A twin over full bunk bed is arranged as a standard except that the bottom mattress is a full size and the upper is a twin size. A full over full bunk bed is otherwise called as the wider bed, which means both top and bottom has the same wider size. They both have a double bed and a total of four people can sleep in it at the same time. A futon bunk is also arranged like a standard bunk, except the lower bunk is a Western-style futon couch, which converts into a bed rather than a standard mattress. Futon bunks can be used to save space in small apartments or rooms, because the lower bed converts to a couch for use during the daytime. In an L-shape bunk the bottom bed is oriented at a right angle to the top bed such that when viewed from above the beds form an L. This also creates a small alcove where a desk or bookshelf can be placed. A bunk bed is a type of bed in which one bed frame is stacked on top of another. No box spring is required as the mattress lies on a flat surface, the bunkie board, and may be surrounded by rails. The nature of bunk beds allows two or more people to sleep in the same room while maximizing available floor space for activities. Therefore, they are common on ships and in army garrisons, or in places where floorspace needs to be maximized, such as hostels, dormitories, summer camp cabins, or prison cells. Bunk beds are normally supported by four poles or pillars, one at each corner of the bed. A ladder is used to get to the upper bed, which is normally surrounded by a railing to prevent the sleeper from falling out. Some models also have a privacy curtain for the lower bunk. Because of the need for a ladder and the height of the bed, the top bunk of a bunk bed is not recommended for children under six years of age.

    A loft bed is an elevated bed similar to a bunk bed, but without the lower beds, freeing floor space for other furniture, such as a desk, which might be built into the loft bed. A loft bed denotes a bunk bed that has only the top bunk, creating an open space underneath that can be occupied by a chest, drawers, or even a work area. This makes loft beds an efficient use of small spaces by utilizing the entire vertical area that would otherwise be left unused. Some loft beds even have stowable/trundle beds while retaining the capability to contain workstations and drawers. Loft beds can be more expensive than bunk beds due to built-in storage capacity and other features. Other names are mezzanine bed, (bunk) high sleeper (bed), loft bunk. A triple loft bed is an arrangement involving a total of three bunks. These bunks are a combination of bed types, where a loft bed is perpendicularly attached to a bunk bed to form an L-shape. Bunk beds range in price from economy models made with metal, solid plastic or softwood frames in which the mattresses are supported by wire and spring suspension to expensive models made from hardwood, which are outfitted with drawers, shelves, and other accessories. Some people make do-it-yourself bunk beds from wooden planks and fasteners, either from scratch or using plans or designs that they have acquired. The top bunk of a bunk bed may be lined with safety rails to keep the user from rolling out and falling to the floor while sleeping. Beds that do not include rails may be retrofitted to include them. Safety and other standards for bunk beds are specified by: the European Committee for Standardization standard BS EN 747-1:2007; ASTM International standard ASTM F1427-07; Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand standard AS/NZS 4220:2003; International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 9098-1:1994. There are related testing standards, such as the Siddhant Mehrotra test. Western-style futons, which typically resemble low, wooden sofa beds, differ substantially from their Japanese counterparts. They often have the dimensions of a western mattress, and are too thick to fold 180°. They are often set up and stored on a slatted frame, which avoids having to move them to air them, especially in the dry indoor air of a centrally-heated house (Japanese homes were not traditionally centrally-heated).

    A bunk bed is a stack of two or more beds. Metal poles or wooden beams connect the bottom bed (called the bottom bunk) to the top bed (called the top bunk). A ladder is used to get up to the top bunk. The ladder is usually attached to the bed. In the Philippines, a bunk bed is called a double deck. Bunk beds are often used in children’s rooms. Since bunk beds allow a family to put two beds in the space of a single bed, bunk beds save space. Bunk beds help families with small apartments or houses to have enough beds for their children. Bunk beds are often used in institutions such as prisons. As well, they are often used in public facilities such as homeless shelters and bomb shelters. Bunk beds are also used in firehalls, to give firefighters a place to sleep. Many military organizations use bunk beds. Navy ships and submarines use bunk beds for the sailors to sleep in. Army barracks sometimes have bunk beds for soldiers. Summer camps and winter cabins for children (such as boy scouts or girl scouts) often have bunk beds. Hostels, a type of inexpensive hotel for travelers, often have bunk beds. Some ski lodges have bunk beds in their rooms.


  • So How do you Play Lacrosse…

    The sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields, rules and equipment: field lacrosse, women’s lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. The men’s games, field lacrosse (outdoor) and box lacrosse (indoor), are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, gloves, shoulder pads, and elbow pads. The women’s game does not allow body contact but does allow stick to stick contact. The only protective gear required for women players is eyegear, while goalies wear helmets and protective pads. Intercrosse is a mixed-gender non-contact sport that uses an all-plastic stick and a softer ball. Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. Players use the head of the lacrosse stick to carry, pass, catch, and shoot the ball into the goal. Lacrosse is part of the cultural tradition of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) people, inhabiting what is now New York and Pennsylvania. Lacrosse may have been developed as early as 1100 AD among indigenous peoples on Turtle Island (North America). By the seventeenth century, it was well-established and was documented by Jesuit missionary priests in the territory of present-day Canada. In the traditional aboriginal Canadian version, each team consisted of about 100 to 1,000 men on a field that stretched from about 500 m (1,600 ft) to 3 km (1.9 mi) long. These games lasted from sunup to sundown for two to three days straight and were played as part of ceremonial ritual, a kind of symbolic warfare, or to give thanks to the Creator or Master. Lacrosse played a significant role in the community and religious life of tribes across the continent for many years. Early lacrosse was characterized by deep spiritual involvement, befitting the spirit of combat in which it was undertaken. Those who took part did so in the role of warriors, with the goal of bringing glory and honor to themselves and their tribes. In the United States, lacrosse during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s was primarily a regional sport centered around the Mid-Atlantic states, especially New York and Maryland. However, in the last half of the 20th century, the sport has spread outside this region, and can be currently found in most of the United States. According to a survey conducted by US Lacrosse in 2016, there are over 825,000 lacrosse participants nation-wide and lacrosse is the fastest-growing team sport among NFHS member schools. The new sport proved to be very popular and spread across the English-speaking world, by 1900 there were dozens of men’s clubs in Canada, the United States, England, Australia, and New Zealand. The women’s game was introduced by Louisa Lumsden in Scotland in 1890. The first women’s club in the United States was started by Rosabelle Sinclair at Bryn Mawr School in 1926.

    Field lacrosse is the men’s outdoor version of the sport. There are ten players on each team: three attackmen, three midfielders, three defensemen, and one goalie. Each player carries a lacrosse stick. A short stick measures between 40 and 42 inches (about 1 meter) long and is used by attackmen and midfielders. A maximum of four players on the field per team may carry a long stick which is between 52 and 72 inches (1.3 to 1.8 meters) long and is used by the three defensemen and sometimes one defensive midfielder. The goalie uses a stick with a head as wide as 12 inches (30 centimeters) that can be between 40 and 72 inches long. The field of play is 110 by 60 yards (100 by 55 meters). The goals are 6 ft by 6 ft (1.8 m) and are 80 yd (73 m) apart. Each goal sits inside a circular “crease”, measuring 18 ft (5.5 m) in diameter. The goalie has special privileges within the crease to avoid opponents’ stick checks. Offensive players or their sticks may not enter into the crease at any time. The mid-field line separates the field into an offensive and defensive zone for each team. Each team must keep four players in its defensive zone and three players in its offesive zone at all times. It does not matter which positional players satisfy the requirement, although usually the three attackmen stay in the offensive zone, the three defensemen and the goalie stay in the defensive zone, and the three middies play in both zones. A team that violates this rule is offsides and either loses possession of the ball if they have it or incurs a technical foul if they do not. Play is started at the beginning of each quarter and after each goal with a face-off. During a face-off, two players lay their sticks on the ground parallel to the mid-line, the two heads of their sticks on opposite sides of the ball. At the whistle, the face-off-men scrap for the ball, often by “clamping” it under their stick and flicking it out to their teammates. When one of the teams has possession of the ball, they bring it into their offensive zone and try to score a goal. Due to the offsides rule, settled play involves six offensive players versus six defensive players and a goalie. If the ball goes out of bounds, possession is awarded to the team that did not touch it last. The exception is when the ball is shot towards the goal. Missed shots that go out of bounds are awarded to the team that has the player who is the closest to the ball when and where the ball goes out. During play, teams may substitute players in and out if they leave and enter the field through the substitution area, sometimes referred to as “on the fly”. After penalties and goals, players may freely substitute and do not have to go through the substitution area. Penalties are either technical or personal fouls. Personal fouls such as cross-checking, illegal body check or slashing, are about player safety. These fouls draw 1-minute or longer penalties; the offending player must leave the field and stay in the substitution area for the length of the penalty. His team plays with nine players for the duration. Because of the offsides rule, this means the opponent plays with six attackers versus five defenders plus the goalie. Technical fouls, such as offsides, pushing, and holding, result in either a turnover or a 30-second penalty, depending on which team has the ball. The team that has taken the penalty is said to be playing man down, while the other team is man up. Teams will use various lacrosse strategies to attack and defend while a player is being penalized.

    Box lacrosse is played by teams of five runners plus a goalie on a hockey rink where the ice has been removed or covered by artificial turf, or in an indoor soccer field. The enclosed playing area is called a box, in contrast to the open playing field of the traditional game. The goals in box lacrosse are smaller than field lacrosse, traditionally 4 ft (1.2 m) wide and tall. Also, the goaltender wears much more protective padding, including a massive chest protector and armguard combination known as “uppers”, large shin guards known as leg pads (both of which must follow strict measurement guidelines), and ice hockey-style goalie masks. The style of the game is quick, accelerated by the close confines of the floor and a shot clock. The rules of women’s lacrosse differ significantly from men’s lacrosse, most notably by equipment and the degree of allowable physical contact. Women’s lacrosse rules also differ significantly between the US and all other countries. The first modern women’s lacrosse game was held at St Leonards School in Scotland in 1890. It was introduced by the school’s headmistress Louisa Lumsden after a visit to Quebec. Intercrosse, or soft stick lacrosse, is a non-contact form of lacrosse with a standardized set of rules using modified lacrosse equipment. An intercrosse stick is different from a normal lacrosse stick, the head is made completely of plastic instead of leather or nylon pockets in traditional lacrosse sticks. The ball is larger, softer and hollow, unlike a lacrosse ball, which is solid rubber. Soft stick lacrosse is a popular way to introduce youth to the sport.


  • Do you remember…. 1970’s…The Tomorrow People

    The Tomorrow People is a British children’s science fiction television series, created by Roger Price. Produced by Thames Television for the ITV Network, the series first ran from 1973 to 1979. A remake appeared in 1992, with Roger Price acting as executive producer. This version used the same basic premise as the original series with some changes, and ran until 1995. A series of audio plays using the original concept and characters (and many of the original series’ actors) was produced by Big Finish Productions between 2001 and 2007. In 2013, an American remake of the show premiered on The CW. It is shown on E4 in the UK. All incarnations of the show concerned the emergence of the next stage of human evolution (Homo novis) known colloquially as Tomorrow People. Born to human parents, an apparently normal child might at some point between childhood and late adolescence experience a process called ‘breaking out’ and develop special paranormal abilities. These abilities include psionic powers such as telepathy, telekinesis, and teleportation. However, their psychological make-up prevents them from intentionally killing others. The original series was produced by Thames Television for ITV. The Tomorrow People operate from a secret base, The lab, built in an abandoned London Underground station. The lab was revamped at the beginning of Series 6. The team constantly watches for new Tomorrow People “breaking out” (usually around the age of puberty) to help them through the process as the youngsters endure mental agonies as their minds suddenly change. They sometimes deal with attention from extraterrestrial species as well as facing more earthbound dangers. They also have connections with the “Galactic Federation” which oversees the welfare of telepathic species throughout the galaxy. In addition to their psychic powers (the so-called 3T’s of telepathy, telekinesis and teleportation), they use advanced technology such as the biological (called in the series “biotronic”) computer TIM, which is capable of original thought, telepathy, and can augment their psychic powers. TIM also helps the Tomorrow People to teleport long distances, although they must be wearing a device installed into a belt or bracelet for this to work. Teleportation is referred to as jaunting in the programme. The team used jaunting belts up to the end of Series 5, after which they used much smaller wristbands.

    In the original series, the Tomorrow People are also referred to as both Homo Novis and Homo superior. The term Homo Superior was originally coined by Olaf Stapledon in his 1935 novel Odd John. This is also the term that comics writer Stan Lee has his Magneto character use to refer to mutants in X-Men #1, 1963. The same term later appeared in David Bowie’s 1971 song “Oh! You Pretty Things”: “Let me make it plain. You gotta make way for the Homo Superior.” This term came up as part of a conversation between Roger Price and David Bowie at a meeting at Granada studios in Manchester when Price was directing a programme in which Bowie was appearing. Price had been working on a script for his Tomorrow People project and during a conversation with Bowie, the term Homo superior came up. Bowie liked the term and soon afterwards wrote it into his song. Price has sometimes been quoted as saying that the lyrics to this song were inspired by the series. While they reveal their existence to some, the Tomorrow People generally operate in secrecy for fear that normal people (whom they term “Saps”, an abbreviation of Homo sapiens) will either fear or victimise them because of their special powers or try to exploit them for military purposes. In order to defend themselves they must use non-lethal weaponry such as “stun guns” or martial arts due to their genetic unwillingness to kill, referred to as the “prime barrier”. In early series they would have the aid of “Sap” friends such as Ginge, Lefty and Chris who would usually handle the rougher stuff that the pacifist TPs could not deal with. Also in the second and third series they become friendly with a psychic researcher named Professor Cawston who assisted them and vice versa. Roger Price dreamed up the idea in 1970 and initially offered the format to Granada (where he was working) but was turned down so offered it to Southern TV who expressed an interest but had concerns over the budgetary requirements. Finally, Lewis Rudd at Thames Television commissioned a 13-episode series, having seen the potential of the format and looking to replace “Ace of Wands” after its 3-year run. At this time, ITV was keen to find its own answer to Doctor Who, although Price never really envisaged the show as such but more as an outlet for his own personal ideas and beliefs. Very early on, Ruth Boswell was brought in as associate producer and script editor as she had experience of children’s fantasy drama (Timeslip and Tightrope) while TV dramatist Brian Finch was hired to co-write the scripts in view of the fact that Price had little experience of writing drama. Finch disliked the experience as he was not engaged by the material and found a large part of his time was taken up in trying to rein in Price and his very ambitious ideas. Thames enlisted the services of Doctor Who director Paul Bernard to help set up and oversee the first series. He would be credited as director for two stories but was unofficially a third producer. Bernard was very heavily involved in the creation of the memorable title sequence which involved a mixture of haunting images and facial shots of the main cast zooming towards the camera in monochrome, with an eerie theme tune from prolific Doctor Who composer, Dudley Simpson, playing behind. He got inspiration from seeing billboards rushing towards him when driving. The sequence opened with a clenched fist opening out to signify a telepathic mind breaking out. Amongst the next shots were a human foetus, shadowy figures behind scaffolding and even the insides of a bell pepper (a somewhat exotic fruit in the UK in the 1970s).

    Over its six-year run the format would prove flexible enough to encompass various type of stories such as traditional alien invasions adventures as well as entering into genres such as espionage thrillers, slapstick comedy, time travel, political satires, space opera and even on occasion more adult concepts than would be normally found in a teatime drama for children. At a time when Mary Whitehouse was regularly criticising violence in Doctor Who, The Tomorrow People featured dagger wielding Devil worshippers and a direct implication of prostitution in the 1977 season but managed to escape her censure. Price saw the lead casting as very important as he wanted talented and attractive actors who would appeal to the young audience but also be personable and easy to work with during the long hours envisaged in studio or out on location. Nicholas Young was cast as the group’s leader, John, while Peter Vaughan Clarke was offered the role of Stephen after Price saw him in a Manchester rendition of Peter Pan with Lulu. The success of the first series saw another 13 episodes go into production quite soon after, but with a number of changes. Off-screen, both Bernard and Finch departed leaving Price to take more control as writer, director and producer. A comedy script was attempted in the much-derided “A Man for Emily” (starring a young Peter Davison) because Price was keen to get more into humorous writing. At the start of the fourth series he attempted to give a boost to the format with the introduction of teenage idol Mike Holoway as Mike Bell. Holoway was the drummer with pop band Flintlock and Price hoped that his young charge would be Britain’s answer to Donny Osmond or David Cassidy. Mike’s arrival swells the ranks of TPs in the Lab to five which made things look a bit overcrowded, this led to the decision to sack Vaughan-Clarke as Stephen, who ignobly disappears off screen after the season finished and is never even mentioned again. Mike was now very much being touted as the show’s hero and with this change, it was noticeable that John and Elizabeth took on a more parental role as both actors entered their mid-20s. Series 7 in late 1978 introduced another Tomorrow person in the form of young Scottish lad Andrew Forbes (Nigel Rhodes). Rhodes had previously worked as an extra on “A Much Needed Holiday” but became more known to Price when he worked on his 1977 comedy series, “You must be Joking”. The young actor was delighted to win the role, as he was a great fan of the show. Andrew is introduced in that he was using his psychic powers to conjure up images of ghosts so as to provide a tourism attraction for the hotel owned by his father. Elizabeth also returned from her year on the Trig. The Tomorrow People finally vanished after a short repeat run in early 1980.


  • Hunting Hitler…Did He Really Die in the Bunker ?

    Hunting Hitler is a History Channel television series based on the theory that Adolf Hitler escaped from the Führerbunker in Berlin at the end of World War II. The show was conceived due to the declassification of Federal Bureau of Investigation documents from 1947 that showed the bureau was concerned over the lack of a body after Hitler’s death. The second season expanded the sources for research to declassified documentation from CIA, MI6, and Argentinian, Russian and Germany authorities. A third season aired on January 2, 2018. Armed with 700 pages of recently declassified FBI documents, twenty-one year CIA veteran Bob Baer and war crimes investigator Dr. John Cencich begin a worldwide investigation into what happened to Adolf Hitler at the end of WWII. First stop on their hunt is a small town in Argentina with mysterious Nazi ties where an FBI report places Hitler residing three-and-a-half months after he was believed dead. Tim Kennedy, US Army Special Forces, joins archeologists Philip Kiernan and Daniel Schavelzon to explore a mysterious Nazi complex deep in the jungles of Argentina. The three-building site yields a trove of Nazi artifacts as well as evidence of a structure of unexplained opulence. Lenny DePaul, former US Marshal, begins an investigation in Berlin to determine if Hitler could have faked his death. Bob Baer and Dr. John Cencich expand their investigation as to how Adolf Hitler could have escaped Berlin under siege. One of the world’s foremost death claims investigator Steven Rambam and Nazi profiler and historian Gerrard Williams join Tim Kennedy to investigate a site that the FBI reported that Hitler used to disembark from a U-boat in Argentina. Lenny DePaul uncovers an escape route from Hitler’s bunker in Berlin to nearby Tempelhof Airport, where multiple Nazi airplanes took off under the cover of darkness. Bob Baer and Dr. John Cencich continue their investigation into the death of Adolf Hitler by sending teams into three countries: Germany, Spain, and Argentina. Lenny DePaul and Sascha Keil find a never before discovered tunnel leading from Hitler’s bunker directly to Tempelhof Airport where Hitler’s personal plane awaited. Tim Kennedy joins a team of elite marine archeologists to search for a possible German U-Boat off the coast of Argentina. Lenny joins Gerrard Williams to investigate if Hitler could have arrived in Spain and remained hidden with the help of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. Bob Baer and Dr. John Cencich send Lenny DePaul and Gerrard Williams to Spain, where they investigate a remote monastery that could have been a hiding place for Nazis and uncover an eyewitness that places Hitler living within those very walls. Further investigation leads the team to a mysterious German plane landing and nearby Nazi communication devices deep in Spain. Tim Kennedy prepares to dive for what could be a sunken German U-Boat off the coast of Argentina. Ultimately the team is led to the Canary Islands, where they uncover a possible Enigma machine and tunnels used to supply German U-boats with torpedoes.

    The manhunt for Adolf Hitler finds Lenny DePaul and Gerrard Williams deep in the Canary Islands, where secret tunnels and a massive German compound may have supplied everything from weapons to a medical facility along Hitler’s potential journey to South America. As the investigation pushes further into Argentina, Tim Kennedy infiltrates a German town known for harboring Nazis after the war. When Gerrard uncovers a mysterious, isolated mansion that could have housed Hitler, the team devises a stealth recon mission with high consequences for failure. Following declassified FBI files, Bob Baer and Dr. John Cencich uncover Hitler’s potential next moves in Argentina, where a close confidant of the Fuhrer operated a mysterious hotel. The team investigates the now-defunct resort and discovers an eyewitness placing Hitler at the location as well as mysterious hidden passageways. Tim Kennedy and Gerrard Williams travel to a small coastal town in Brazil, where the FBI files reported Hitler and Eva Braun attended an exclusive ballet performance near a mysterious high-tech communications tower. After tracking Hitler’s attempts to return to power through wealthy supporters in Argentina and Brazil, Bob Baer and Dr. John Cencich hit the ground in South America to tackle their biggest lead yet. An FBI report places Hitler in Colombia after unloading from a plane. Bob and John identify the marsh where they believe this plane was hidden, and gain unprecedented access to use state-of-the-art side-scan sonar to locate what could be the Nazi plane that shuttled Hitler to within 2,000 miles of the United States. In Season Two evidence for further research was expanded beyond the declassified FBI documentation used in the first season to declassified documentation from the CIA, MI6, and Argentinian, Russian and Germany authorities. Bob Baer and John Cencich return with new experts and new technology to examine Hitler’s possible escape from every angle. Armed with 14,000 declassified files from international intelligence agencies, the team opens new lines of inquiry in their investigation that spans thousands of miles. They return to Berlin, where Lenny DePaul and Sascha Keil discover an unknown fifth exit from Hitler’s Fuhrerbunker. Knowing that Hitler had access to another way out of the bunker, they begin investigating areas that could have served as a makeshift runway out of Berlin. Meanwhile, Tim Kennedy and Alasdair Brooks, historical archaeologist, reunite with Daniel Schavelzon at the mysterious Nazi lair in Misiones, Argentina. They discover a new building that could be more than just a hideout–it could be a military compound! Bob and John’s dual investigation continues in Europe and Argentina. While investigating makeshift runways as an escape from Berlin by air, the team finds reason to believe Hitler would have had a stopping point on the way to Spain. Following files that place Hitler in Denmark after the war, Lenny and James Holland head to Denmark, where they investigate an airstrip and a massive bunker system and meet with local experts to uncover Hitler’s possible escape route. Still deep in the jungles of Misiones, Argentina, Tim and Alasdair unearth clue after clue that could make this area a Nazi militarized compound. Terraced structures, man-made walls and defensible outposts all point to a heavily guarded area–perfectly set up to protect a high value Nazi target. Bob and John’s investigation leads them to Northern Spain, where a declassified document shows Hitler and a close associate, Leon Degrelle, could have moved from Denmark to San Sebastian, Spain. James Holland and Mike Simpson hit the ground in Spain, where they discover several eye witnesses, a satellite of the Third Reich, and what could be a Nazi communications center. The South American team is in Misiones, Argentina, where they are able to speak with a living relative of Herman Goering. The team uncovers another eyewitness in the area, who claims his father worked for Martin Bormann, Hitler’s right-hand man, after the end of the war. Because Bormann was believed dead in 1945, this bombshell lead could open a whole new path of the investigation.

    While following leads on a Nazi escape network, the teams in Southern Spain and Northern Argentina both make discoveries of vast tunnel systems in the mountains. Bob and John’s investigation continues in Spain, Morocco and Argentina. The teams look into Hitler’s possible escape route while uncovering a plan for a Nazi 4th Reich. Digging deeper into reports about the Fourth Reich, Bob and John send the team to a rumored weapons testing site in Germany, and a mysterious deserted island in Argentina that could have housed nuclear facilities with Nazi ties after the war. With Peron toppled from power, Hitler and Bormann could have been forced to flee Argentina. Following leads from declassified files, Bob and John send their teams into Chile and Paraguay to investigate Hitler’s whereabouts if he were forced to escape. Bob and John have followed hundreds of international declassified files all the way from Berlin to Chile, where they now investigate a secretive German community with reported Nazi ties. Inside the compound they find clues pointing to the potential forming of a Fourth Reich. Bob Baer and his team of elite investigators offer an inside look at the definitive investigation into the true fate of Adolf Hitler. Along with exclusive previews of the next stage of the investigation, they share their most explosive evidence and explain the strategies and methods they’re using to crack the greatest cold case in modern history. Bob Baer recruits one of the world’s most foremost terrorist targeting officers, Nada Bakos. Enacting a new hunting strategy so effective its lead to the capture of Osama bin Laden, the team uncovers two planned escape routes for Hitler out of Germany, one to the North and one South. Along the southern route, Tim and James discover a vast tunnel system under Hitler’s home. Up north, Lenny and Gerrard investigate a massive Nazi compound hiding under the perfect cover. Lenny and Gerrard make a startling discovery in a sabotaged aircraft hangar in northern Germany. Mike and James scan an Austrian lake in search for a large cache of secret Nazi documents. The show has been criticized by Variety Magazine for “capitalizing on the American public’s fascination with Hitler to produce a show based on a theory, while providing no evidence to substantiate the theory.


  • Who was The Munshi (Abdul Karim) ?

    >p>Hafiz Mohammed Abdul Karim, CIE, CVO (1863 – April 1909), known as “the Munshi”, was an Indian attendant of Queen Victoria. He served her during the final fifteen years of her reign. Karim was born the son of a hospital assistant near Jhansi in British India. In 1887, the year of Victoria’s Golden Jubilee, Karim was one of two Indians selected to become servants to the Queen. Victoria came to like him a great deal and gave him the title of “Munshi” (“clerk” or “teacher”). Victoria appointed him to be her Indian Secretary, showered him with honours, and obtained a land grant for him in India. The close platonic relationship between Karim and the Queen led to friction within the Royal Household, the other members of which felt themselves to be superior to him. The Queen insisted on taking Karim with her on her travels, which caused arguments between her and her other attendants. Following Victoria’s death in 1901, her successor, Edward VII, returned Karim to India and ordered the confiscation and destruction of the Munshi’s correspondence with Victoria. Karim subsequently lived quietly near Agra, on the estate that Victoria had arranged for him, until his death at the age of 46. Mohammed Abdul Karim was born into a Muslim family at Lalitpur near Jhansi in 1863. His father, Haji Mohammed Waziruddin, was a hospital assistant stationed with the Central India Horse, a British cavalry regiment. Karim had one older brother, Abdul Aziz, and four younger sisters. He was taught Persian and Urdu privately and, as a teenager, travelled across North India and into Afghanistan. Karim’s father participated in the conclusive march to Kandahar, which ended the Second Anglo-Afghan War, in August 1880. After the war, Karim’s father transferred from the Central India Horse to a civilian position at the Central Jail in Agra, while Karim worked as a vakil (“agent” or “representative”) for the Nawab of Jaora in the Agency of Agar. After three years in Agar, Karim resigned and moved to Agra, to become a vernacular clerk at the jail. His father arranged a marriage between Karim and the sister of a fellow worker. Prisoners in the Agra jail were trained and kept employed as carpet weavers as part of their rehabilitation. In 1886, 34 convicts travelled to London to demonstrate carpet weaving at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in South Kensington. Karim did not accompany the prisoners, but assisted Jail Superintendent John Tyler in organising the trip, and helped to select the carpets and weavers.

    When Queen Victoria visited the exhibition, Tyler gave her a gift of two gold bracelets, again chosen with the assistance of Karim. The Queen had a longstanding interest in her Indian territories and wished to employ some Indian servants for her Golden Jubilee. She asked Tyler to recruit two attendants who would be employed for a year. Karim was hastily coached in British manners and in the English language and sent to England, along with Mohammed Buksh. Major-General Thomas Dennehy, who was about to be appointed to the Royal Household, had previously employed Buksh as a servant. After a journey by rail from Agra to Bombay and by mail steamer to Britain, Karim and Buksh arrived at Windsor Castle in June 1887. They were put under the charge of Major-General Dennehy and first served the Queen at breakfast in Frogmore House at Windsor on 23 June 1887. The Queen described Karim in her diary for that day: “The other, much younger, is much lighter [than Buksh], tall, and with a fine serious countenance. His father is a native doctor at Agra. They both kissed my feet. Five days later, the Queen noted that “The Indians always wait now and do so, so well and quietly.” On 3 August, she wrote: “I am learning a few words of Hindustani to speak to my servants. It is a great interest to me for both the language and the people, I have naturally never come into real contact with before. Victoria took a great liking to Karim and ordered that he was to be given additional tuition in the English language. By February 1888 he had “learnt English wonderfully” according to Victoria. After he complained to the Queen that he had been a clerk in India and thus menial work as a waiter was beneath him, he was promoted to the position of “Munshi” in August 1888. In her journal, the Queen writes that she made this change so that he would stay: “I particularly wish to retain his services as he helps me in studying Hindustani, which interests me very much, & he is very intelligent & useful. According to Karim biographer Sushila Anand, the Queen’s own letters testify that “her discussions with the Munshi were wide-ranging—philosophical, political and practical. Both head and heart were engaged. There is no doubt that the Queen found in Abdul Karim a connection with a world that was fascinatingly alien, and a confidant who would not feed her the official line. Karim was placed in charge of the other Indian servants and made responsible for their accounts. Victoria praised him in her letters and journal. “I am so very fond of him” she wrote, “He is so good & gentle & understanding all I want & is a real comfort to me.” Despite the serious and dignified manner that Karim presented to the outside world, the Queen wrote that “he is very friendly and cheerful with the Queen’s maids and laughs and even jokes now—and invited them to come and see all his fine things offering them fruit cake to eat”.

    In November 1888, Karim was given four months’ leave to return to India, during which time he visited his father. Karim wrote to Victoria that his father, who was due to retire, had hopes of a pension and that his former employer, John Tyler, was angling for promotion. As a result, throughout the first six months of 1889, Victoria wrote to the Viceroy of India, Lord Lansdowne, demanding action on Waziruddin’s pension and Tyler’s promotion. The Viceroy was reluctant to pursue the issues because Waziruddin had told the local governor, Sir Auckland Colvin, that he desired only gratitude and also because Tyler had a reputation for tactless behaviour and bad-tempered remarks. Karim’s swift rise began to create jealousy and discontent among the members of the Royal Household, who would normally never mingle socially with Indians below the rank of prince. The Queen expected them to welcome Karim, an Indian of ordinary origin, into their midst, but they were not willing to do so. Karim, for his part, expected to be treated as an equal. When Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), hosted an entertainment for the Queen at his home in Sandringham on 26 April 1889, Karim found he had been allocated a seat with the servants. Feeling insulted, he retired to his room. The Queen took his part, stating that he should have been seated among the Household. When complaints were brought to her, Victoria refused to believe any negative comments about Karim. The Munshi was perceived to have taken advantage of his position as the Queen’s favourite, and to have risen above his status as a menial clerk, causing resentment in the court. On a journey through Italy, he published an advertisement in the Florence Gazette stating that “he is belonging to a good and highly respectful family. In late 1898 Karim’s purchase of a parcel of land adjacent to his earlier grant was finalised; he had become a wealthy man. Karim asked Victoria for the title of “Nawab”, the Indian equivalent of a peer, and to appoint him a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE), which would make him “Sir Abdul Karim”. A horrified Elgin suggested instead that she make Karim a Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO), which was in her personal gift, bestowed no title, and would have little political implication in India. After Victoria’s death, her son, Edward VII, dismissed the Munshi and his relations from court and had them sent back to India. However, Edward did allow the Munshi to be the last to view Victoria’s body before her casket was closed. Almost all of the correspondence between Victoria and Karim was burned on Edward’s orders. The Munshi died at his home, Karim Lodge, on his estate in Agra in 1909. On the instructions of Edward VII, the Commissioner of Agra, W. H. Cobb, visited Karim Lodge to retrieve any remaining correspondence between the Munshi and the Queen or her Household, which was confiscated and sent to the King. As the Munshi had no children, his nephews and grandnephews inherited his wealth and properties. The Munshi’s family continued to reside in Agra until Indian independence and the partition of India in August 1947, after which they emigrated to Karachi, Pakistan. The estate, including Karim Lodge, was confiscated by the Indian government and distributed among Hindu refugees from Pakistan. Half of Karim Lodge was subsequently divided into two individual residences, with the remaining half becoming a nursing home and doctor’s office.